Extracellular Vesicles in Malaria Infection

Ladawan Khowawisetsut, Narakorn Khunweeraphong


Malaria is one of the tropical diseases which cause high rate of morbidity and mortality. The disease is caused by the infection of protozoan parasites in the genus Plasmodium. The severe syndromes of malaria infection arise from the complex sequences of parasite-host interactions. It starts with parasite invasion and followed by the rupture of infected red blood cells causing the release of parasite products that activate the host immune response. During the past decade, research on the functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in many diseases including malaria has increased dramatically. This article reviews the role of EVs in malaria immunopathogenesis. Investigations into modulators in immune response, ubiquitous mechanism for intercellular communication between parasite-parasite and parasite-host, as well as its usefulness as the diagnostic biomarkers are highlighted.


Extracellular vesicles; exosomes; Malaria; Plasmodium spp.

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