The Teratogenic Effects of Dichlorvos on the Development of Chick Embryos

Jantima Roongruangchai, Yadaridee Viravud, Vasana Plakornkul, Kesorn Sripaoraya, Wiwat Jorakit, Kosol Roongruangchai

Abstract


Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the teratogenic effects of dichlorvos on developing chick embryos.
Methods: The fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were divided into two groups: the experimental group which was injected with 0.1 ml of 0.5% and 1% dichlorvos in normal saline and the control group which was injected with 0.1 ml of normal saline after 21 h of incubation. On day 3, 6, and 11, the embryos were collected for studying embryonic dead and abnormalities.
Results: The results showed that the mortality rate increased with the increasing concentration of dichlorvos and time of incubation. The total mount of day 3 had only three primary brain vesicles, small and retarded primordial eye, dilated U-shaped heart looping, bifurcation of spinal cord and trunk when compared with the control. The results in the serial section of day 3 and 6 showed several abnormalities especially the retardation of eye and heart. Day 11 embryo revealed morphological anomalies including hematoma and bone deformation.
Conclusion: Dichlorvos caused congenital abnormalities in chick embryos in 3 categories, the growth retardation, the malformations and the embryonic death which were predicted to   cause the same results in contaminated humans. Dichlorvos exposure increases the risk of malformations and embryonic death. The present study revealed that dichlorvos was a powerful teratogenic compound and therefore its use should be limited and pregnant women should avoid contamination with dichlorvos especially in the first trimester. 


Keywords


Dichlorvos; organophosphate; teratogen; chick embryo

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